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General physics

A.Y. 2021/2022

Learning objectives

Provide basic knowledge of Physics and methods to describe and analyse natural phenomena.

Expected learning outcomes

Students will learn to address physical problems using equations, based on the laws of classical physics, and solve them quantitatively:

1. knowledge and understanding: knowledge of basic physical laws and their application context

2. ability to apply the acquired knowledge and understanding: application of the abovementioned laws to solve simple problems, providing both a parametric solution (as a function of the quantities characterising the system under exam) and a numerical solution with measurement units

1. knowledge and understanding: knowledge of basic physical laws and their application context

2. ability to apply the acquired knowledge and understanding: application of the abovementioned laws to solve simple problems, providing both a parametric solution (as a function of the quantities characterising the system under exam) and a numerical solution with measurement units

**Lesson period:**
Second semester

**Assessment methods:** Esame

**Assessment result:** voto verbalizzato in trentesimi

Course syllabus and organization

### Single session

Responsible

Lesson period

Second semester

If the health emergency will endure, lectures will be held online, on zoom platform, during the scheduled lecture time, and with video recording -- students are anyway encouraged to attend in time, rather than watch videos later.

**Course syllabus**

REFERENCE FRAMES

Cartesian and angular coordinates

Position vectors and displacement vectors

Vectors in general: sum, difference, scalar product, cross product

KINEMATICS

Motion in space, trajectory, time aw

Average velocity and instant velocity

Acceleration, tangent and centripetal acceleration

Angular velocity

DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINTS

Law of inertia, uniform straight motion

Laws of dynamics (F=ma, composition of forces, action-reaction law)

Integration of the motion equation

Particular case: constant force, uniformly accelerated motion

Particular case: centripetal force, uniform circular motion

Momentum and conditions for its conservation

Torque, angular momentum, conditions for its conservation

INTERACTIONS IN NATURE

Force fields

Introduction on the fundamental interactions: gravitational, electromagnetic interactions, hints about strong and weak interactions

Examples of motion in electric and magnetic fields [mass spectrometer, circular accelerators...]

Macroscopic forces: constraint reactions, impulse forces, frictions, surface forces

SCALAR AND VECTOR FIELDS

Field lines

Line integral and circulation

Oriented surfaces and flux

Gradient of a scalar field

WORK AND ENERGY

Work, kinetic energy, power

Conservative forces, potential energy

Mechanical energy and its conservation

CENTRAL FORCE FIELDS

Conservation of angular momentum

Potential energy

Motion in a central field

ELASTIC FORCES

Elastic force in a spring

Harmonic oscillating motion

Elastic energy

Motion of a pendulum

Elastic forces in materials (hints)

A model for constraint reactions (hints)

Forced oscillator

FLUID DYNAMICS

Surface forces, pressure

Laws of Stevin, Pascal, Archimede

Law of Bernoulli

GRAVITATIONAL FORCES

Law of universal gravitation

Gravitational energy

Motion in a central gravitational field

Gauss theorem and field generated by an extended spherical mass

ELECTRIC FIELDS

Coulomb's law, Gauss theorem

Electrostatic potential

Electric dipole, hints about interactions among atoms and molecules

Electric current and current density

Conductors and microscopic conduction model, Ohm law

Properties of conductors, electrostatic screen

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Maxwell equations

Some particular magnetic fields (wire, loop, coil)

Hints on magnetic dipole, hints on magnetization

Law of Faraday-Neumann-Lenz and non-conservative electric fields

Electromagnetic waves (plane and spherical)

EM waves in matter: dispersion

EM waves in conductors: absorption and electromagnetic screen

OPTICS

Electromagnetic spectrum

Huygens principle

Interference and diffraction

Fermat principle, optical ray

Reflection law

Refraction index, optical path

Refraction law

Thin lens

THERMODYNAMICS

Empirical temperature and law-zero

Thermal capacity, latent heat

Kinetic theory of thin gases

First law of thermodynamics and conservation of energy

Carnot's machine, thermal machines, efficiency

Second law of thermodynamics and entropy

Cartesian and angular coordinates

Position vectors and displacement vectors

Vectors in general: sum, difference, scalar product, cross product

KINEMATICS

Motion in space, trajectory, time aw

Average velocity and instant velocity

Acceleration, tangent and centripetal acceleration

Angular velocity

DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINTS

Law of inertia, uniform straight motion

Laws of dynamics (F=ma, composition of forces, action-reaction law)

Integration of the motion equation

Particular case: constant force, uniformly accelerated motion

Particular case: centripetal force, uniform circular motion

Momentum and conditions for its conservation

Torque, angular momentum, conditions for its conservation

INTERACTIONS IN NATURE

Force fields

Introduction on the fundamental interactions: gravitational, electromagnetic interactions, hints about strong and weak interactions

Examples of motion in electric and magnetic fields [mass spectrometer, circular accelerators...]

Macroscopic forces: constraint reactions, impulse forces, frictions, surface forces

SCALAR AND VECTOR FIELDS

Field lines

Line integral and circulation

Oriented surfaces and flux

Gradient of a scalar field

WORK AND ENERGY

Work, kinetic energy, power

Conservative forces, potential energy

Mechanical energy and its conservation

CENTRAL FORCE FIELDS

Conservation of angular momentum

Potential energy

Motion in a central field

ELASTIC FORCES

Elastic force in a spring

Harmonic oscillating motion

Elastic energy

Motion of a pendulum

Elastic forces in materials (hints)

A model for constraint reactions (hints)

Forced oscillator

FLUID DYNAMICS

Surface forces, pressure

Laws of Stevin, Pascal, Archimede

Law of Bernoulli

GRAVITATIONAL FORCES

Law of universal gravitation

Gravitational energy

Motion in a central gravitational field

Gauss theorem and field generated by an extended spherical mass

ELECTRIC FIELDS

Coulomb's law, Gauss theorem

Electrostatic potential

Electric dipole, hints about interactions among atoms and molecules

Electric current and current density

Conductors and microscopic conduction model, Ohm law

Properties of conductors, electrostatic screen

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Maxwell equations

Some particular magnetic fields (wire, loop, coil)

Hints on magnetic dipole, hints on magnetization

Law of Faraday-Neumann-Lenz and non-conservative electric fields

Electromagnetic waves (plane and spherical)

EM waves in matter: dispersion

EM waves in conductors: absorption and electromagnetic screen

OPTICS

Electromagnetic spectrum

Huygens principle

Interference and diffraction

Fermat principle, optical ray

Reflection law

Refraction index, optical path

Refraction law

Thin lens

THERMODYNAMICS

Empirical temperature and law-zero

Thermal capacity, latent heat

Kinetic theory of thin gases

First law of thermodynamics and conservation of energy

Carnot's machine, thermal machines, efficiency

Second law of thermodynamics and entropy

**Prerequisites for admission**

good knowledge of basic mathematics, trigonometry, exponential and logarithm functios, differential and integral calculus.

**Teaching methods**

Front lectures, on theory and exercises.

Students are strongly encouraged to attend.

Students are strongly encouraged to attend.

**Teaching Resources**

Handouts downloadable from the web page of the course

**Assessment methods and Criteria**

Written exam - oral exams not foreseen. The final mark will account for the ability of solving problems in the topics treated in the lectures.

Educational website(s)

Professor(s)